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학술대회 자료 및 해외학회 동향

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제목 해외학술연구 동향(미국, Education Administration Quarterly, 46(1)) 조회 772
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Education Administration Quarterly



Volume 56 Issue 5, December 2020


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Negotiating Authority in the Ritual of the Public School Board Meeting



[Abstract]


Purpose: To investigate how and in what way local governance of education is consequential to the work of changing public schools. The focus is on the board of education meeting as a ritual performance where authority is socially negotiated to manage the emotional and symbolic interactions that shape the district organization. Research Design: Data are drawn from 30 months of organizational fieldwork in New Haven Public Schools. Analysis is conducted on meeting transcripts, participant observer field notes, and stakeholder interviews. Findings: Observed as a ritual chain, four aspects of board of education meetings can be manipulated by those attempting to assert their authority within the organization. Organizational members used copresence, shared understandings of the ritual, emotions and symbols, and feelings of solidarity to set boundaries around the organization and maintain stability. Conclusions: Performances of organizational routines such as board meetings are consequential to the micro-level work of leading and changing education. School improvement and reform initiatives must account for the midlevel of school governance at the district and board level to make meaningful and sustainable change.




From Principals to Teachers to Students: Exploring an Integrative Model for Predicting Students’ Achievements



[Abstract]


Purpose: This study explored a theoretical model proposing direct and mediated effects for principals’ characteristics?principals’ information-processing mechanisms (PIPMs) and instructional leadership (IL)?with organizational learning mechanisms (OLMs),
for schools’ OLMs with teachers’ characteristics?teachers’ affective commitment (TAC), collective teacher efficacy (CTE), and teachers’ job satisfaction (TJS)?and finally, for teachers’ characteristics with students’ achievements on national math and science tests. Design: Data were collected from a multisource survey of a random sample of 130 elementary school principals representing Israel’s full socioeconomic range, 1,700 teachers from those schools, as well as data on those schools retrieved from the Ministry of Education data set. Data were aggregated at the school level for structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Findings: Analysis from SEM confirmed that IL emerges as a prominent mediator between PIPMs and OLMs. OLMs emerged as a prominent mediator between IL and the three teachers’ characteristics. TAC and CTE were significantly directly related to students’ math and science achievements. Finally, OLMs promoted students’ math and science achievements only through CTE. Implications: The relationships found for both principal characteristics (PIPMs and IL) with OLMs in schools highlight principals’ potentially important role in promoting collective learning within schools through utilization of OLMs, which can predict critical teacher characteristics (TAC, CTE, TJS), which in turn can predict school effectiveness measures (i.e., students’ achievements).



 

Focusing on the Practice of Distributed Leadership: The International Evidence From the 2013 TALIS



[Abstract]


Purpose: This study is primarily interested in the operational evidence of distributed leadership using large-scale and multicountry data. Specifically, this study investigates (a) how three position-based human units?the principal, the management team, and teachers?could lead nine school leadership functions together and (b) how the country and school contextual factors are related to the leadership distribution mechanism, which examines the associations among variables across national boundaries including 32 countries. Research Design: This study conducted a secondary data analysis using the 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey. The researcher first constructed the latent variables to quantify the extent to which the three groups led the nine leadership functions. Then a resampling approach with balanced repeated replication weights was used to disclose the extent to which each group led each of the 17 leadership tasks. Finally, a structural equation model helped reveal the existing associations among contextual factors and distributed leadership operation. Findings: First, distributed leadership was reported by principals to exist in 25 countries, and there were seven distributed leadership patterns discovered among 32 countries included in the sample, though two patterns were revealed to have little leadership distribution. Second, this study found that the principal, the management team, and teachers led varied leadership functions. Finally, both country and school contextual factors were associated with how leadership was distributed. Conclusions: This study, using large-scale and international data, has added new evidence with a particular interest in the effects of contextual influence on distributed leadership practices.



Shared Leadership for Learning in Denver’s Portfolio Management Model



[Abstract]


Purpose: This study examines how district governance and different school contexts in Denver’s portfolio management model affect shared leadership for learning. We define this as shared influence on instructional leadership and school-wide decision making, which research suggests have strong ties to student achievement and teacher commitment. Method: We analyze interview data from 53 administrators, teacher leaders, and teachers in eight case study schools and teacher surveys in 48 schools. In both data sets, we purposively sampled based on variance in school performance ratings and by school type (e.g., traditional public, standalone charter, charter management organization [CMO], and innovation schools). Findings: We find that perceptions of shared instructional leadership were generally high across the school contexts, though CMO and innovation schools had the highest perceptions in both the survey and case study data. Schools varied substantially in shared decision making, but innovation schools had higher average scores than other school models. Centralized policies and supports, alongside organizational visions spanning networks of schools, helped explain the enactment of shared leadership for learning. For example, schools within Denver’s “innovation” network shared a common vision of teacher empowerment, while CMOs that had more prescribed policies and practices across their schools had lower reported levels of shared decision making. Implications for Research and Practice: Portfolio management models that prioritize school-based autonomy and choice between different kinds of schools are proliferating in urban areas. Our study helps explain why and how shared leadership for learning differs between school models and explores important implications for this variation.



Is “Whole Child” Education Obsolete? Public School Principals’ Educational Goal Priorities in the Era of Accountability



[Abstract]


Objectives: Working under the constraints of external accountability policy, public school principals are faced with challenges in prioritizing educational goals. Using the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) data sets, this study examined the nature and sources of changes in principals’ educational goal priorities in the era of accountability, including the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Method: Difference-in-differences method was used to compare the national average trends of educational goal priorities between public and private schools during 1991~2012 period. Comparative interrupted time series method was also used to explore the impact of NCLB accountability policy on those trends across 50 states. At the school level, logistic regression was applied to examine the effect of NCLB Adequate Yearly Progress status on principals’ educational priorities. Results: While academic goals gained traction over the 1991~2012 period, there were setbacks for other goals of education, particularly personal growth and vocational skills. Notably, public schools’ priority changes were more drastic than private schools’ changes. The divergent trends largely persisted after NCLB across the states. On the other hand, public school principals who previously failed to meet NCLB targets gave more emphasis on basic skills and less emphasis on academic excellence and personal growth. Conclusion: Public school principal’s priorities on academic goals have been shaped by test-driven accountability measures, while other equally important goals have been possibly deprioritized. It gives implications for the implementation of the Every Student Succeeds Act, in which educational leaders can redesign accountability systems and incorporate nonacademic measures for whole child education.



김현준(미네소타대학 교수, kimhj88@gmail.com)